Lake Macquarie History

Who's who, what's what and where's where in the Fennell Letters

Reference Letter Meaning
1851 floods Tom 1st July 1851 There was widespread flooding in the Hunter in 1851, beginning in May of that year and peaking in July.
Albacore Tom 7th September 1847 Albacore is a type of tuna. It is found in the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, and the Mediterranean Sea.
Amy Tom 30th December 1848 Presumed to be the nickname of Ruhamah, Richard and Tom's sister born in 1820 in London.
Ann Holt (formerly Hayward) Biographical information Louisa's mother. Louisa's name is given as Hayward on her marriage certificate, as this was the name of her father. The name Holt was from her mother's second marriage.
Aunt Mary Richard 16th October 1854 Mary White (1791-1853). Mary was the sister of Ruhamah White, Richard and Tom's mother.
Aunt Tootal Richard 17th June 1850 Ann White (died 1857). Ann was the sister of Ruhamah White, Richard and Tom's mother. She married John Tootal in 1821. John Tootal is listed in an 1822 Wakefield Directory as living in Johns Square. In 1826 he is listed in a Leeds directory as a Corn Factor whose home is Wakefield..
Australia is just now in a woeful plight Richard 22nd April 1864 A La Niña event spanning the years 1860 - 1864 brought repeated widespread flooding to settlements across NSW. This succession of natural disasters demoralised rural communities and devastated agricultural endeavors. The floods in 1863 and 1864 were the most severe, with much of the New England and Hunter Valley regions inundated with floodwaters.
Belle Vue Biographical information French meaning Beautiful View. This was the name of Joseph Holdsworth's house in Wakefield. (see also entry for Holdsworth). Belle View was originally an outlying village of Wakefield about 1 mile SSE of the city centre.
Benjamin and Co of Sydney Richard 30th April 1851 Samuel Benjamin and Elias Moses were merchants of Sydney and Goulburn. They had travelled to Australia on the same ship as Richard in 1833. They are referred to as 'some wealthy shipmates of mine' by him in his letter of 30th April 1851. More information
Benjamin and Moses Tom 6th October 1847 Samuel Benjamin and Elias Moses were merchants of Sydney and Goulburn. They had travelled to Australia on the same ship as Richard in 1833. They are referred to as 'some wealthy shipmates of mine' by him in his letter of 30th April 1851. More information
Benjamin Miner Richard 23rd November 1846 Possibly a reference to Benjamin and Moses. Samuel Benjamin and Elias Moses were merchants of Sydney and Goulburn. They had travelled to Australia on the same ship as Richard in 1833. They are referred to as 'some wealthy shipmates of mine' by him in his letter of 30th April 1851. More information
Bill Tom 11th February 1852 William Fennell - Richard and Tom's brother born 1818. He married Mary White, the daughter of wine merchant Thomas White. He joined his wife's family business, and became a wealthy wine merchant in Wakefield.
Billy Richard 17th June 1850 William Fennell - Richard's son born 31.1.1848. Photograph of William Fennell
Black, Captain Tom June 1849 Captain James Black, owner of Trialba station. The Fennell's leased Trialba from 1849-1850, before settling at Boughton Point. Further information on James and John Black can be found in the book 'Around Cockle Creek' by Peter Murray.
Boniface at the Gap Richard 17th June 1850 Boniface is a word used to describe a proprietor of a hotel, an inkeeper. Boniface also refers to St Boniface, who was an English missionary and reformer, often called the apostle of Germany for his role in the Christianization of that country. He was known for being extremely pious, devoutly evangelistic and very severe in his judgements. By 1848 Richard was Licensee of the Sir John Barleycorn Inn at Geary's Gap, Lake George. This could be a reference to Richard attempting to civilize /christianize the patrons of the hotel.
Boughton, Mr Richard 16th October 1854 John Herring Boughton, who in 1833 purchased 149 acres at Lake Macquarie, a peninsula called Boughton Point. In 1850 Richard Fennell and family were renting the property. He died in the boating accident on 20th September 1854, which is detailed in Richard's letter of 16th October 1854.
Boyd, Mr. of Boydtown Tom May 4th 1848 Benjamin Boyd 1801-1851 Scottish born Australian pioneer and entrepreneur - one of the largest landowners in the colony. His property Boydtown was near Twofold Bay. More information
Brooks, Mr Tom 30th December 1848 George Brooks, early Lake Macquarie settler and landowner. Further information can be found in the book 'George Brooks : colonial surgeon', by Peter Murray.
Brooks, uncle Joseph Biographical information Joseph Brooke, early Lake Macquarie settler and landowner. Louisa Fennell (nee Hayward) arrived in Australia aboard the Ann Lockerby on 23 December 1836, in the company of her mother Ann Holt, her uncle Joseph Brooke, Brooke's new wife Jane,and young 12 year old Joseph Brooke. The ships manifest mistakenly lists her as Louisa Brooke and gives her age as 17.
Broughton Point Biographical information Present day Bolton Point. In 1833 John Herring Boughton purchased 149 acres at Lake Macquarie, a peninsula called Broughton Point. In 1850 Richard Fennell and family were renting the property. Reverend L.E. Threlkeld first gave the name Broughton Point to the area after William Grant Broughton (biographical information) who was appointed Bishop of Australia in 1836. Various names were used to identify the area, Bolton Point was a misnaming for what was once Boughton Point and then Broughton Point and eventually Boyce's Point (Source: "In These Desert Wilds" by Peter Murray).
Bungendore Postmark on letter. Bungendore was a town near Lake George first settled in 1825.Mail service was introduced in 1837 and a Post Office built 3 years later. The population of the town was listed as 30, in 1848 and 63, in 1851
Burrell, Mrs. Tom May 4th 1848 The Burells were neighbours of William Fennell in Wakefield. In 1853 there was a John Burrell, Surgeon, living at 117 Westgate, a Henry Nelson Burrell,Chemist, living at Kirkgate. In 1864 there was a William Becket Burrell, Solicitor.
Bushmen's Club Tom 's will The Bushmen’s Club was a philanthropic initiative associated with John Howard Angas. The idea was to provide a ‘home’ in the city for South Australia’s itinerant bushmen. In 1870 the Club was established on Whitmore Square on the site of a house formerly occupied by Judge Cooper that had been built 30 years previously. The bluestone Club building constructed between 1871-72 facing Whitmore Square remains, adjacent to the William Booth Memorial Home. In 1899 the Club buildings were sold to the Salvation Army and became known as the Salvation Army Hostel.
Coates, Mr Tom 6th October 1847 Possibly William Coates born 22 Feb 1784 in Tutbury, Staffordshire, England. He was publican of Staffordshire Arms in Sydney in 1838.
Cresswell, Charles Tom 9th March 1848 Charles Cresswell who was listed in the census as a Traveller [Wine merchant] who lived in York St, Wakefield with his wife Elizabeth. He was an associate of William Fennell.
Dick Tom 6th October 1847 Richard Fennell, Tom's brother. See full biography
Dukeses Tom 29th November 1847 Presumably friends or neighbours in Wakefield, but this is unknown.
'Ebenezer' (also known as Mount Mulberry), Biographical information The site of Lancelot Threlkeld's Western mission. Threlkeld applied for a Land Grant and chose 1280 acres on the western side of Lake Macquarie that today forms the suburbs of Toronto, Carey Bay, Coal Point and Kilaben Bay. The land, promised on 18.8.1829, was called 'Punte' by the Awabakal tribe of Aborigines, meaning 'a narrow place' or 'a narrow point of land'. Assistant Crown Surveyor Ralphe marked the boundary of this land also called 'Deranban(m)bah' and Threlkeld renamed it 'Ebenezer' after the area on the Hawkesbury River where his wife had lived at Cattalo. It was also called Mount Mulberry because of the large Mulberry trees which grew on the hill. Biographical information on Lancelot Threlkeld
fearful floods Richard 1st May 1865 A La Niña event spanning 1860 - 1864 brought repeated widespread flooding to settlements across NSW. This succession of natural disasters demoralised rural communities and devastated agricultural endeavors. The floods in 1863 and 1864 were the most severe with much of the New England and Hunter Valley regions inundated with floodwaters.
Fennell, Mrs Mary Fennell (nee White), William's wife. She was sister in law to Richard and Nathaniel (also referred to by them as sister).
Fennell, Mrs Thomas (that is to be) Richard 16th October 1854 It is unknown who this refers to.Presumably, Nathaniel Thomas had met somebody he intended to mary, however there is no record of a marriage taking place.
Fisher, Mr Tom 1st July 1851 Mr Robert Fisher's Tweed cloth factory at Stockton, which burnt down in 1851. Dr. James Mitchell built a tweed mill on the south western point of Stockton installing the most modern machinery from England. The mill was leased to Messrs Robert Fisher and Alex Donaldson who employed about 300 people. In one year the factory produced 70,000 yards of tweed and 800 yards of flannel. Destroyed by fire in 1851, it was the largest factory in the colony.
Freemason's Arms Hotel Biographical information The hotel was on the corner of King and George Streets Sydney. Richard was licensee from October 1834 until April 1835.
Geary's Gap Geary's Gap is near Gundaroo in the Southern Tablelands. It was named for Daniel Geary who had property there. He was a local District Constable. His wife Bridget and 4 children resided with him. He owned a hotel at the location in the 1830's which he called the 'Currency Lad'. The road was a busy one, and he served many a thirsty traveller after they had reached the top of the range. They arrived on horses, on foot or by coaches. Geary’s Gap was also a great location for the bushrangers to ply their trade. Travellers were often relieved of their valuables here. Several other licensees followed him, including Richard Fennell, when the inn was known as the Sir John Barleycorn, before the hotel closed in 1850. Map of Geary's Gap and Gundaroo
Guise, Mr. Tom May 4th 1848 Richard Guise - large landholder at Lake George, who owned 250,000 acres near Geary's Gap. His property was named Jerrabiggery. Map of Geary's Gap and Gundaroo
Gundaroo Biographical information Gundaroo is a town near Lake George in the southern tablelands region of NSW, on the road south from Goulburn. The first settlement occurred in the Gundaroo area in the 1820s and by the end of the 1830s most of the better land was occupied . The first township developed at Upper Gundaroo with a hotel opened in 1840 and a Post office in 1848.There were about 600 residents in the 1840s. William Guise was one of the major land holders at Bywong and Springfield.Map of Geary's Gap and Gundaroo
Guthrie's on Disease of the Chest Richard 3rd September 1850 Probably a work by George James Guthrie (1 May 1785 - 1 May 1856), an English surgeon specialising in Military field medicine. One of his works was 'On wounds and injuries of the chest'. Tom Fennell states in his letter of November 29 1847 that "Dick suffers dreadfully from his chest and fears he may not last". Richard also mentioned being troubled by his chest in his letters.
Hannah Richard and Louisa's daughter who was born 12.5.1842. She married Edward William Hely born in 1843, son of Edward Norton Hely and Caroline A Battley. Hannah died in 1879. Edward Hely had a lifelong association with the timber trade and was also, with Edward Sparke from Maitland, one of the first white men to travel down the Darling /Murray to SA
Hargraves Tom 25th April 1852 Edward Hammond Hargraves was a gold prospector who claimed to have found gold in Australia in 1851, starting the Australian gold rush. More information
Harriett Richard 17th June 1850 Richard and Tom's sister - born May 1825. She was closest in age to Tom (born Feb1827), which explains their close correspondence. In the1841 census she was at a Girls Finishing School in Islington. In1851 she was visiting her older sister Ruhamah (born1820) in Stranton, Durham, and her occupation was listed as Stationer. In1861 she was living in West Hartlepool as an “Annuity Holder”. In1863 she married Henry Stephenson who was listed as a Coal Agent.
Hely, Miss Louisa April 1889 Caroline Elizabeth Hely, daughter of Edward and Caroline A Battley. She was the younger sister of Edward William Hely who married Hannah Matilda Fennell, Richard and Louisa's eldest daughter. Born in 1847, She married Frank Rogers in 1874
Hitty, Hity, Hittie Various letters Nickname of Richard and Tom's sister Harriet - born May 1825. She was closest in age toTom (born Feb1827), which explains their close correspondence. In the1841 census she was at a Girls Finishing School in Islington. In1851 she was visiting her older sister Ruhamah (born1820) in Stranton, Durham, and her occupation was listed as Stationer. In1861 she was living in West Hartlepool as an “Annuity Holder”. In1863 she married Henry Stephenson who was listed as a Coal Agent.
Holdsworth, Mr Tom June 1849 Possibly Joseph Holdsworth (1789-1857) a prosperous local dyer who was elected MP for Wakefield, or his son Joseph Hulme Holdsworth, a master dyer Of Wakefield. The Holdsworth's were connected to both the White and Fennell families by marriage in past generations. Richard's father was in business with a Holdsworth, and his great grandfather on his fathers side was a Holdsworth.
Holmes, Mr. Richard 1st May 1865 Unknown
Holt, Mr Dick's father in law Tom 9th March 1848 Louisa's step father. It is unknown when he married Ann Hayward, but it was most likely back in England. Holt's station is mentioned in a coroner's inquest into the death of a William Geary in 1845, Richard Fennell came from Holt's station to assist and attempted unsuccessfully to revive the victim by bleeding. It is assumed that his was the station owned by Louisa's father. It is probably why the family - Louisa, her mother and her uncle Joseph Brooke - came out to Australia and ended up in Gundaroo.
Hydropathic establishment in Yorkshire Louisa April 1889 Hydropathy, or "the water cure" was a common treatment for ailments ranging from depression to gastro-intestinal disorders in the nineteenth-century, as well as a form of recreation. It was especially popular in the mid nineteenth century. Patients went to dedicated establishments to take the water cure. This usually involved drinking copious quantities of (usually mineral) water, wrapping the patient in wet sheets to induce a sweat, and various forms of baths and showers. Ben Rhydding, in Yorkshire (established in 1844 and only 30 miles from Wakefield), was one of the first hydros established in the UK. It was significant in terms of the scale of its operations and its provisions for visitors.
I suppose the War make everything prosperous Richard 16th October 1854 Crimean war (1854-56) fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the conflict took place around Crimea, on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
John Tom 29th November 1847 Probably refers to John Tootal, who married Ann White in 1821. Ann was the sister of Ruhamah White, Richard and Tom's mother. In 1822 he is listed in a Wakefield Directory in Johns Square. In 1826 he is listed in Leeds directory as a Corn Factor whose home is Wakefield.
John Barley Corn Inn Biographical information A hotel at Geary's Gap near Gundaroo in the Southern Tablelands. Daniel Geary a local District Constable owned a hotel at the location in the 1830's which he called the Currency Lad. Several other licensees followed him, including Richard Fennell when the inn was known as the Sir John Barleycorn, before the hotel closed in 1850 The road was a busy one and he served many a thirsty traveller after they had reached the top of the range. They arrived on horses, on foot or by coaches. Geary's Gap was also a great location for the bushrangers to ply their trade. Travellers were often relieved of their valuables here. Map of Geary's Gap and Gundaroo
Lake George Ranges Lake George (or Weereewa in the indigenous language) is a lake in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. It is about 40 kilometres north-east of Canberra along the Federal Highway en route to Sydney. Lake George is an Endorheic lake, as it has no outflow of water to rivers and oceans. Water levels fluctuate significantly over time. The "ranges" refers to the hills around this area. Photograph of Lake George Ranges
Lascelles, Mr Engineer, Kirkgate Tom 6th October 1847 The name Lascelles figues prominently in the census records for Yorkshire and Leeds. There is a Lascelles family listed as living in Kirkgate, Wakefield in the 1841 and 1851 census records. Edward Lascelles was listed in the 1841 and 1851 cencus records as a "Maltster and Inn keeper" living at Kirkgate, Wakefield.
Lizzy Tom 9th March 1848 Unknown. Could have been Mary (nee White) Fennell's sister Elizabeth who was born c.1823. She was living with William and Mary in the 1851 census.
Louisa Richard 17th June 1850 Louisa is Richard's wife. Louisa was born c.1819, the daughter of James and Ann Hayward, of London. She arrived in Australia aboard the Ann Lockerby on 23 December 1836, in the company of her mother Ann Holt, her uncle Joseph Brooke, Brooke's new wife Jane,and young 12 year old Joseph Brooke. The ships manifest mistakenly lists her as Louisa Brooks and gives her age as 17. Louisa's father James Hayward and mother Ann lived in Golden Lane London where she was born. James Hayward was in a partnership with a Joseph Brooke which was dissolved in the early 1800s, ending in bankruptcy. Louisa and Richard Fennell met and were married in the small Southern Tablelands town of Gundaroo, NSW in1841. Louisa's name is given as Hayward on her marriage certificate, as this was the name of her father. The name Holt was from her mother's second marriage.
Markham, Mr Tom 6th October 1847 A passenger on the Agincourt with Nathaniel Thomas. Accompanied by his sister and niece.
Maroo Tom 25th April 1852 Maroo or Meroo Creek goldfields were about 20 miles south of Mudgee. In July 1851 an Aboriginal stockman in the employ of Dr Kerr found a large mass of gold and quartz, weighing about 136kg and containing a hundred weight of gold (50.8kg) on the western side of the village of Hargraves. This began a ‘rush’ to the area and the subsequent discovery of many rich alluvial deposits along the creeks and gullies in the area, especially Meroo Creek, Louisa Creek, Long Creek, Dalys Creek, Clarkes Creek, Campbells Creek, and Oaky Creek.In the early 1850s between 124kg and 156kg of gold are said to have been sent away from the field every fortnight under police escort.
Mary Mary Fennell (nee White) William Fennell's wife. She was sister in law to Richard and Nathaniel (also referred to by them as sister). Photograph of Mary Fennell
Mary Ann Sparks Richard 16th October 1854 There were several Mary Anns in the Sparke family. This is most likely Mary Ann Sparke (born 1830, died 1901), daughter of William Sparke and Mary Ann (nee Holt). Richards daughter Hannah was a witness at her wedding in 1858 to George Turner. She was a sister to William Andrew Sparke who was a good friend of Tom's, and was referred to in many of Tom's letters as Willy or William. Tom stayed on his property at Hexham.
Maryland. Merrylands, Biographical information & Richard 17th June 1850 This was a farm, part of the land holdings of Newcastle Surgeon George Brooks. This property was on the edge of the swampland at Hexam. Tom Fennell leased this property for a time.
More, Hannah Tom 9th March 1848 2 February 1745 - 7 September 1833. At a time when women were actively discouraged from such pursuits, she was an English religious writer and philanthropist. She was a poet and playwright in the circle of Johnson, Reynolds and Garrick, a writer on moral and religious subjects, a practical philanthropist and an abolitionist. The 4 lines quoted here are the final lines of her poem "Sir Eldred of the Bower: a legendary tale". More information
Moses, Mr Moses Tom June 1849 & Tom 4th February 1851 Samuel Benjamin and Elias Moses were Merchants of Sydney and Goulburn. They had travelled to Australia on the same ship as Richard in 1833. They are referred to as 'some wealthy shipmates of mine 'by him in his letter of 30th April 1851.
most dreadful visitation of flood and hurricane Richard 21st July 1867 The worst storm and flood event in European history of Australia at that time struck Sydney in June 1867. In 1867, floods north of Sydney caused significant loss of life and damage to properties, farmland and public buildings. The 1867 floods occurred in the middle of winter.
Mother Richard 17th June 1850 This refers to Ruhamah Fennell (1784-1850), who married Richard Fennell, (1780 - 1827) in Wakefield (her birthplace) in 1808. Ruhamah was the daughter of William White who appears to have been in a warehouse business in Wood St London with Richard. Richard was the father of William, Hannah, Ruhamah, Mary and Harriet who lived in England , and Nathaniel Thomas and Richard who moved to Australia. In 1834 Ruhamah was living with her father in Wakefield where she is noted as witness to a robbery at his house which included items of her late husband's. Her father's death in 1840 probably explains why she was living at Westgate, with her daughter Ruhamah and son William, at the time of the 1841 Census. She died in 1850.
My Dearest Uncle Richard 21st July 1867 This probably refers to William White, older brother of Ruhamah White, Richard and Tom's mother
my wife's Uncle Richard 16th October 1854 Joseph Brooke, early Lake Macquarie settler and landowner. Louisa Fennell (nee Hayward) arrived in Australia aboard the Ann Lockerby on 23 December 1836, in the company of her mother Ann Holt, her uncle Joseph Brooke, Brooke's new wife Jane,and young 12 year old Joseph Brooke. The ships manifest mistakenly lists her as Louisa Brooke and gives her age as 17.
Nipper Tom 11th February 1848 Unknown. Possibly a pet name for one of William and Mary's children.
old Captain Richard 16th October 1854 Joseph Brooke, early Lake Macquarie settler and landowner. Louisa Fennell (nee Hayward) arrived in Australia aboard the Ann Lockerby on 23 December 1836, in the company of her mother Ann Holt, her uncle Joseph Brooke, Brooke's new wife Jane,and young 12 year old Joseph Brooke. The ships manifest mistakenly lists her as Louisa Brooke and gives her age as 17.
Peak of Tenerife Tom 6th October 1847 Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the seven Canary Islands. The Peak of Tenerife refers to Teide Peak, the highest point . The area continues to be the site of volcanic activity.
Peel diggings Tom 25th April 1852 From the 1850’s to the 1880’s thousands of people came to what was then called the Peel River Diggings which incorporated Nundle, Happy Valley, Hanging Rock, and Bowling Alley Point
Penbingle John Richard 25th October 1850 Probably refers to John Peerybingle, a character in a novella by Charles Dickens - The Cricket on the Hearth. A Fairy Tale of Home - which was published in 1845. He was a large, big-hearted, but somewhat slow-witted carrier.
Pleuritis Richard 30th April 1851 Pleurisy (also known as pleuritis) is an inflammation of the lining surrounding the lungs. There are many possible causes of pleurisy but viral infections spreading from the lungs to pleural cavity are the most common. In the days before antiBiographical informationtics, this was a serious disease and often caused death.
pleuro pneumonia among the cattle Richard 1st May 1865 Contagious bovine plueuropneumonia is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of cattle.
Polls, Polly Tom 9th March 1848 & Tom 30th December 1848 This probably refers to Richard and Tom's sister Mary. Polly is a common nickname for Mary.
poor Johns suffering Tom 1st July 1851 Probably refers to John Tootal who married Ruhamah's sister Ann in 1821. Ann died in 1857. In 1822 he is listed in a Wakefield Directory in Johns Square. In 1826 he is listed in Leeds directory as a Corn Factor whose home is Wakefield.
Pope, Mr. in Adelaide Richard 3rd October 1874 Unknown
Rafferty Tom May 4th 1848 Unknown
Ranclaud, Charles Tom 4th February 1851 Charles Boscawen Ranclaud, Son of Captain James St John Ranclaud, who had arrived with his family in 1829. CB Ranclaud was at various times a farmer, timber merchant, Returning Officer for Newcastle and Newcastle Coroner for 9 years. Trialba was the original Ranclaud land.The name Trialba was used on maps as early as 1831 and was used for the property and the general area.
Ricardo Bonifacio Richard 3rd September 1850 A reference to St Boniface. A clever affectionate term from William rather than a criticism which also turned into a joke at Tom's expense. Boniface is a word used to describe a proprietor of a hotel, an inkeeper. Boniface also refers to St Boniface, who was an English missionary and reformer, often called the apostle of Germany for his role in the Christianization of that country. He was known for being extremely pious, devoutly evangelistic and very severe in his judgements.
Rogers, Mrs Louisa April 1889 Caroline Elizabeth Hely, daughter of Edward and Caroline A Battley. She was the younger sister of Edward William Hely who married Hannah Matilda Fennell, Richard and Louisa's eldest daughter. Born in1847, She married Frank Rogers in1874
Rohana's Richard and Tom's sister Ruhamah, born1819
Skeltons Tom May 4th 1848 Presumed to be neighbours in Wakefield
Skinner, Mrs Tom October 6th 1847 Mrs Skinner, Aylesbury Buckinghamshire, is listed as a forwarding address in this letter to his mother. It is unknown who this is, but resumably Ruhamah was staying with Mrs Skinner at the time. Aylesbury is three hours by modern road from Wakefield. so probably would have been a days travel in 1847.
Sparke, William Jnr Tom 4th February 1851 William Andrew Sparke Son of William and Mary Ann Sparke early settlers at Hexham. William Andrew married Elizabeth Tighe in 1834.
Sparkes, Mr Richard 1st May 1865 One of the Sparke Family of Hexham. Probably William Andrew Sparke Son of William and Mary Ann Sparke early settlers at Hexham. William Andrew married Elizabeth Tighe in 1834.
Stevenson Mr W. Louisa April 1889 William Stevenson owned a timber mill at Dora Creek at this time. Richard and Louisa's dauhter Ruhamah (born 1846) married William Stevenson in 1881. She died of Typhoid in 1898 at the home of her brother Walter Beadon Fennell in Islington Photograph of William Stevenson and Ruhamah
Tait, Mr. Tom May 4th 1848 Possibly refers to a member of the Gates family who lived in Wakefield at the time. The 1851 Census lists a George (74) and Sarah (74) Gates living in Wakefield with their daughter Mary Ann. George is listed as a pauper formerly Brewer's Man
Tait, Mrs Tom 9th March 1848 Possibly refers to a member of the Gates family who lived in Wakefield at the time. The 1851 Census lists a George (74) and Sarah (74) Gates living in Wakefield with their daughter Mary Ann. George is listed as a pauper formerly Brewer's Man
The Bishop Broughton, William Grant (1788 - 1853) Broughton arrived in Sydney on 13 September 1829, succeeding Thomas Scott as Archdeacon of New South Wales. Broughton was promptly made a member of both the colony's legislative council and executive council, assisting the Governor in the administration. He was enthroned Bishop of Australia, on 5 June 1836, in St James' Church, Sydney, as leader of the new Diocese of Australia.
The scab sheep Richard 22nd April 1864 Of all diseases caused by mites, sheep-scab is without a doubt the best-known, most dangerous, most destructive, and most dreaded condition. Sheep-scab is caused by the sheep-scab mite, and is highly contagious. It has been found that poor feeding conditions are also related to scab.
Thomas/Tom Nathaniel Thomas Fennell. Youngest brother of Richard. Tom was born on London in 1827, the same year that his father died. He followed his brother out to Australia arriving on the Agincourt in 1847, aged 20. Biographical information
Threlkeld, Lancelot Biographical information Protestant missionary who was one of the earliest settlers of Lake Macquarie. He established an aboriginal mission at Bah-ta-bah (present day Belmont) in 1826. Biographical information on Lancelot Threlkeld
Tolson Tom May 4th 1848 They were neighbours of the Fennells who lived in Wakefield. James Tolson and F Tolson White were witnesses at William Fennell and Mary White's marriage in 1845.
Tootal, Mrs. Richard 30th April 1851 A member of the Tootal family. John Tootal married Ann White in 1821. Ann was the sister of Ruhamah White, Richard and Tom's mother. John Tootal is listed in an 1822 Wakefield Directory in Johns Square. In 1826 he is listed in a Leeds directory as a Corn Factor whose home is Wakefield. Ann died in 1857.
Trafalgar Richard 23rd November 1846 The ship on which Richards package from William was sent. A barque of 564 tons, which sailed on 4th June 1846 from London. Arrived Port Jackson 8th October 1846.
Trialba Station Richard 17th June 1850 Trialba was the original Ranclaud land. CB Ranclaud was at various times a farmer, timber merchant, Returning Officer for Newcastle and Newcastle Coroner for 9 years. The name Trialba was used on maps as early as 1831 and was used for the property and the general area. The station was owned by Captain James Black when it was leased by Richard. It stretched from Barnsley to the Lake
Turner Tom 4th February 1851 Edward Turner and his brother John were known to operate mines in the area at this time.Turner had commenced coal mining at Hexham in 1844
Tythe Richard 30th April 1851 One tenth part of something, paid as a contribution. In this case this would mean "not worth one tenth of the £100 rent on the property."
Uncle William Richard 22nd April 1864 Probably refers to Ruhamah (Richard and Tom's mother) White's older brother William.
Wakefield Tom 7th September 1847 Wakefield is a a metropolitan district and city of West Yorkshire, England. The first permanent settlers at Wakefield were the Angles, from Germany and Denmark. They would have been able to sail up the river Calder from the North Sea. The site was on a hill, above the river, yet watered by springs and becks, and with an area of dense forest to the north (the Outwood). It was a prime defensive settlement, with good soil and easy communication by other settlers by land or river. One theory of how Wakefield gained its name is that it was named after the Anglo-Saxon settler who first made his home there – a man named Waca – and that the name derives from Waca’s feld or field. Therefore the first spelling would probably have been Wacanfeld. Census returns show the growth of Wakefield’s population in this period: 1801 = c.8,000; 1851 = c. 17,000; 1891 = c.23,0000. In 1800 Wakefield was still a very prosperous market town. It benefited from being on the border of the textile towns to the west, and the coalmining villages and farming communities to the south and east.
Walter Richard 1st May 1865 Walter Beadon Fennell, son of Richard and Louisa born in 1850 . Photograph of Walter Beadon Fennell
Watts, Dr Hymns Richard 23rd November 1846 Isaac Watts (17 July 1674 – 25 November 1748) was an English Christian hymnwriter, theologian and logician. He is credited with composing some 750 hymns, some of which are still sung today. The book referred to was possibly Divine Songs Attempted in Easy Language for the Use of Children, published in 1715.
Will Tom 5th July 1848 & Tom 6th October 1847 William Fennell - Richard and Tom's brother born 1818. He married Mary White and was a wealthy wine merchant in Wakefield. Photograph of William Fennell
William William Fennell - Richard and Tom's brother born 1818. He married Mary White and was a wealthy wine merchant in Wakefield. Photograph of William Fennell
Willie Tom 6th October 1847 William Fennell - Richard and Tom's brother born 1818. He married Mary White and was a wealthy wine merchant in Wakefield. Photograph of William Fennell
Willy Tom 1st July 1851 William Andrew Sparke (born 1832 died 1891), son of William and Mary Ann (nee Holt) Sparke, early settlers at Hexham. William Andrew married Elizabeth Tighe in 1834. He was a good friend of Tom's, and was referred to in many of Tom's letters as Willy or William. Tom stayed on his property at Hexham.