Lake Macquarie History

History of Belmont Lagoon - References

(1) Excerpt of Lake Macquarie and wetlands https://portal.spatial.nsw.gov.au/portal/home/webmap/viewer.html?useExisting=1&layers=bf332165d7fd4a6886dc39ecd25a9593

(2) Belmont House is in Unst, a northern-most Shetland Island in Scotland. See Peter Murray (4) (2005). pp.94-97.

(3) Lake Macquarie City Council. Belmont Lagoon Reserve Plan of Management. P.O.M. 26. Adopted 10 December 2001

(4) Peter Murray. From Bahtahbah to Belmont. A history of Belmont 1826-1926. Reprinted 2005.

(5) Belmont Wetlands State Park Trust. “Final Plan of Management Belmont Wetlands State Park (PoM) 2010.” https://www.industry.nsw.gov.au/data/assets/pdf_file/0019/175051/Belmont-wetlands-state-park-pom-january-2010.pdf

(6) Winning, G. and K. Markwell (1989) “Lake Macquarie Wetlands Inventory.” Report prepared for Lake Macquarie City Council by Shortland Wetlands Centre. Unpublished. June 1989.

(7) United States Environmental Agency. “What is a wetland?” https://www.epa.gov/wetlands/what-wetland

(8) N.S.W. Department of Primary Industries. “Coastal wetlands.” https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/habitat/aquatic-habitats/wetland/coastal-wetlands

(9) Cartographic map G8960s63, Lake Macquarie N.S.W. Prepared by Australian Section Imperial General Staff 1:63,360. 1942.

(10) Belmont Anti-tank Ditch during World War 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belmont_Anti-Tank_Ditch

(11) Lionel Lambkin. Belmont Lagoon. Unpublished notes. 1986. used with permission from Win Lambkin.

(12) Mary Boyes. ‘Holidays at Belmont Bay’ 18/1/1985. Lake Macquarie City Library. In P. Murray p.190 (Footnote 4).

(13) Sloss, C. R., Hesp, P. & Shepherd, M. (2012) Coastal Dunes: Aeolian Transport. Nature Education Knowledge.

(14) Soil Landscapes of the Gosford-Lake Macquarie 1:100000 Sheet, NSW Department of Conservation and Land Management Soil Landscape Series Sheets 9131-9231.

(15) R. Kidd Coastal dune management: a manual of Coastal Dune Management and Rehabilitation Techniques. NSW Department Land and Water Conservation, Coastal Unit, DLWC Newcastle 2001.

(16) Pam Dean-Jones. “Belmont Wetlands State Park Dune Plan of Management”, Umwelt, September 2019, p.30.

(17) Drought in Australia. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/lookup/1301.0Feature%20Article158

(18) The Newcastle Sun. Tue. 9 April 1940, p.5. Lagoon dries up.

(19) Fernleigh Awabakal Shared Track Project. https://www.lakemac.com.au/Projects/Fernleigh-Awabakal-Shared-Track-FAST Accessed 15 December 20

(20) Feletti, G. (2020) Special Report 10 Birdlife at Belmont Lagoon 2015-2020. www.hboc.org.au/publications/publications/

(21) Earth scientists differ on this estimate (100-168 m)

(22) Roz Kerr 2000. Green Point Geology. Information poster on Green Point Centenary of Federation Trail. Accessed 26 November 2019.

(23) Keith Clouten. Reid’s Mistake. Lake Macquarie Shire Council. Reprinted 1988. p.36.

(24) Garden Palace Fire 1882. Accessed 10 September 2020. https://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/magazine/galleries/garden-palace-fire

(25) Crown Plan N174-2111 Surveyor William Biden’s map transmitted to the NSW Surveyor-General on 30 Dec 1874. Microfiche accessed at Crown Land Archives, Kingswood NSW 13 August 2020.

(26) Parish of Kahibah, County of Northumberland Map. Newcastle Land District. 1885. NSW Land Registry Services.

(27) Lake Macquarie Libraries. Belmont Lagoon, Aboriginal Heritage. https://history.lakemac.com.au/page-local- history.aspx?pid=1085&vid=20&tmpt=narrative&narid=3945

(28) Ice-age-struck-indigenous-australians-hard. https://www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2013/09/..

(29) Woodward, C., Shulmeister, J., and D. Bell (2014) A Holocene record of climate and hydrological changes from Little Llangothlin Lagoon, south-eastern Australia. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683614551218

(30) Christopher Morton, president, Amateur Geological Society of Hunter Valley. pers. comm. email 20/10/2020.

(31) Len Dyall, Professor Emeritus. University of Newcastle NSW. The Swansea Heads midden. https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/awaba/culture/midden.html

(32) Jewells Swamp. Aboriginal heritage. https://history.lakemac.com.au/page-local- history.aspx?pid=1085&vid=20&tmpt=narrative&narid=3947

(33) Belmont Lagoon, Aboriginal Heritage. Lake Macquarie Libraries. Accessed 17 November 2020. https://history.lakemac.com.au/page-local-history.aspx?pid=1085&vid=20&tmpt=narrative&narid=3945

(34) Len Dyall. pers.comm. 15 November 2020.

(35) University of Newcastle, NSW. Percy Haslam papers. Box A6711, Special Collections, Auchmuty Library. Accessed 10 December 2020.

(36) New Holland Mouse. NSW North Coast. Accessed 20 November 2020. https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=20253

(37) Harry Rose and Carol Rose. Grasses of coastal NSW. NSW Department of Primary Industries (2012). p 174.

(38) Troedson, A.L. and Deyssing, L. 2016. Newcastle-Hunter Area. 1:100 000 and 1:25 000, Coastal Quaternary Geology Map Series, Geological Survey of NSW, Maitland. Copyright: State of NSW (Department of Planning, Industry and Environment).

(39) Pam Dean-Jones, Principal, Umwelt (Australia) Pty., Ltd. pers. comm. Email 18 November 2020.

(40) Ron Boyd. Conjoint Associate Professor, University of Newcastle. pers. comm. emails 16, 18 Nov, 11 Dec. 2020

(41) Boyd, R., Dalrymple, R. and B.A. Zaitlin (1992) Classification of clastic coastal depositional environments. Sedimentary Geology, 80, 139-150.

(42) Robin Offler, Associate Professor. University of Newcastle. email pers. comm. 17 November 2020

(43) John Fryer, Emeritus Professor of Surveying. University of Newcastle, pers. comm. email 17 November 2016

(44) Philip Reid. Changes in wetland use by shorebirds following mangrove removal, Area E, Ash Island, New South Wales